Biography of Shaka Zulu, the greatest Zulu leader and one of the great conquerors of military history . [15] Dingane ruled for some twelve years, during which time he fought, disastrously, against the Voortrekkers, and against another half-brother, Mpande, who, with Boer and British support, took over the Zulu leadership in 1840, ruling for some 30 years. The Zulus rose to prominence during the reign of King Shaka (1818-1828). Shaka usurps the Zulu Chiefdom. I count myself fortunate to have met the author of the book Shaka Zulu, Mr E.A. Shaka Zulu Intro. 1824 European artist's impression of Shaka with a long throwing, A muster and dance of Zulu regiments at Shaka's kraal, as recorded by European visitors to his kingdom, c. 1827, Expansion of power and conflict with Zwide, Shakan methods versus European technology, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFOmer-Cooper1966 (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Newitt, Malyn D.D. The series consisted of 10 episodes approximately 50 minutes each in length. Certain aspects of traditional Zulu culture still revere the dead monarch, as the typical praise song below attests. They spent two whole days recuperating in one instance, and on another they rested for a day and two nights before pursuing their enemy. Though Shaka probably did not invent the iklwa, according to Zulu scholar John Laband, the leader did insist that his warriors train with the weapon, which gave them a "terrifying advantage over opponents who clung to the traditional practice of throwing their spears and avoiding hand-to-hand conflict. From a military standpoint, historian John Keegan notes exaggerations and myths that surround Shaka, but nevertheless maintains: Fanciful commentators called him Shaka, the Black Napoleon, and allowing for different societies and customs, the comparison is apt. These numbers are, however, controversial. Shaka determined to gain hegemony over the local clans and the ritual skirmishing that had been the traditional manner of settling disputes was to change. Book chapter. [13], It is also supposed that Shaka introduced a larger, heavier version of the Nguni shield. Furthermore, it is believed that he taught his warriors how to use the shield's left side to hook the enemy's shield to the right, exposing the enemy's ribs for a fatal spear stab. broke college graduate for now. Much controversy still surrounds the character, methods and activities of the Zulu king. It came relatively quickly after the death of his mother Nandi in October 1827, and the devastation caused by Shaka's subsequent erratic behavior. Despite carrying out this revenge, Shaka continued his pursuit of Zwide. He has been called a military genius for his reforms and innovations, but was condemned for the brutality of his reign. Soga and Bryant related each of them to a larger grouping they called Mho. He addressed this by allowing them to marry and set up homesteads (which was forbidden during Shaka's rule) and they also received cattle from Dingane. [7], In the initial years, Shaka had neither the influence nor reputation to compel any but the smallest of groups to join him, and upon Dingiswayo's death, Shaka moved southwards across the Thukela River, establishing his capital Bulawayo in Qwabe territory; he never did move back into the traditional Zulu heartland. When the Mthethwa forces were defeated and scattered temporarily, the power vacuum was filled by Shaka. Shaka's army set out on a massive programme of expansion, killing or enslaving those who resisted in the territories he conquered. However, apart from their reputation as great military leaders, history has remembered these two men quite differently. This combination has been compared to the standardisation implemented by the reorganised Roman legions under Marius. His life is the subject of numerous colourful and exaggerated stories, many of which are debated by historians. Stuart's early 20th century work was continued by D. McK. He is credited with creating a fighting force that devastated the entire region. Under Shaka (1819-1828), the Zulu territory expanded phenomenally. This video is unavailable. Is this a good timeline of the major biographical highlights of Shaka Zulu? Biography of Shaka Zulu, the greatest Zulu leader and one of the great conquerors of military history . Traditional Zulu praise song, English translation by Ezekiel Mphahlele, Other Zulu sources are sometimes critical of Shaka, and numerous negative images abound in Zulu oral history. The antique dealer in Pietermaritzburg, Natal, R.S.A., from whom I … Chaka by Thomas Mofolo and Daniel P. Kunene. Sigujana's reign was short, however, as Dingiswayo, anxious to confirm his authority, lent Shaka a regiment so that he was able to put Sigujana to death, launching a relatively bloodless coup that was substantially accepted by the Zulu. You know nothing, hint guessers. Microsoft Encarta Reference Library, 2005. Shaka kaSenzangakhona is considered as one of the greatest rulers in the history of the Zulu Kingdom. The Zulu become a powerful nation. Shaka Zulu was founder of the Zulu nation, a born leader and a brilliant general. Their major victory at the Battle of Isandlwana was the most prominent one, but they also forced back a British column at the Battle of Hlobane, by deploying fast-moving regiments over a wide area of rugged ravines and gullies, and attacking the British who were forced into a rapid disorderly fighting retreat, back to the town of Kambula.[23]. [34][35] Further unquantifiable deaths occurred during mass tribal migrations to escape his armies. [16] He was tall and his skin tone was dark brown. The tribe emerges from uncolonized native land in 1727, with cores, bordering fellow Fetishist Xhosa southwest, uncolonized native land north and west, and the waters of the Cost of Natal (Cape of Storms area, South Atlantic region) east. In 1820 Shaka takes control of the entire Zulu Kingdom and begins his conquest. [3], Shaka further refined the ibutho military system and, with the Mthethwa empire's support over the next several years, forged alliances with his smaller neighbours to counter the growing threat from Ndwandwe raids from the north. Assassination by rivals to the throne is a constant in monarchies throughout history and around the world. [13] Some of these practices are shown below. Shaka is without doubt the greatest commander to have come out of Africa.[25]. Shaka's triumphs did not succeed in obliterating or diminishing the memories of his better-born rivals. 1828, September 22, Shaka is assassinated by Mbopa, and two of Shaka’s half-brothers, Dingane and Mhlangana. 1826, Shaka faces Zwides son, Sikhunyane. Shaka was born in 1787. In 1826 the Zulu led by Shaka defeat the nation of Ndwandwe and adds much land to the Zulu kingdom furthering their control of south Africa. Shaka then led a fresh reserve some 70 miles (110 km) to the royal kraal of Zwide, ruler of the Ndwandwe, and destroyed it. Zulu Victory: The Epic of Isandlwana and the Cover-Up by Ron Lock and Peter Quantrill (Greenhill, 2002) The Rise and Fall of the Zulu Nation by John Laband ... British History Timeline. Michal Lesniewski has criticised Wylie for some[which?] 1816-1826 - Shaka Zulu founds and expands the Zulu empire, creates a formidable fighting force. When I mentioned that Shaka … Napier", "The Zulu Military Organization and the Challenge of 1879", "Shaka Zulu's brutality was exaggerated, says new book", "Warfare, Political Leadership, and State Formation: The Case of the Zulu Kingdom, 1808-1879", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shaka&oldid=990942729, Wikipedia articles with style issues from September 2017, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2014, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2017, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2015, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The main force, the "chest," closed with the enemy, While the enemy impi was pinned by the "chest," the "horns" would, The "loins," a large reserve, was hidden, seated, behind the "chest" with their backs to the battle, for the sake of them not losing any confidence.