There is still virtually no infrastructure and access is by canoe. These were selected according to their location (proximity to the IRAD)—as we needed to visit them 4 times a week. A mangrove-wood kiln holds seashells that will be baked into valuable lime. Wood was sold in variety of ways. All interviews were conducted with the consent of respondents, and confidentiality was assured. Thus, type 1 error levels (i.e., reject the null hypothesis when true) are not guaranteed. These figures are supported by Chesnes (2009) in his study on the implementation of a Clean Development Mechanism project for the improvement of fish smoking ovens in the Douala-Edea reserve, who found it takes 3 to 4 days to smoke fish in a traditional oven. Fish smokers’ ages ranged from 20 to over 60. About 400 women in Cameroon’s coastal zones are contributing to environmental conservation by smoking fish with fish scales and kitchen waste as alternatives to using wood from mangrove forests. This use of mangroves is often of great importance. Table 2 shows the different alternative sources of energy used. When there was a smoking session, the weight of the fish and of the wood used for smoking was measured and recorded. The Moringa tree is a drought-resistant and fast-growing tree that rejuvenates soil. (a) Plantain and cassava peel. The smoking time is also shorter than with a traditional oven, and working conditions (smoke, heat, and fumes) are better. In our sample, all the fish smokers were women. Four solar dryers have been built, saving up to 40 tonnes of CO2 per year. Mangrove Wooden Charcoal is Thailand hardwood charcoal produced from high quality mangrove branches and trunk wood. On average and for fish smoking session, fish smokers use 50€ for wood. Studies in Benin, Togo, and Ivory coast (Abotchi, 2010; Chabi et al., 2014; Oulaï et al., 2007) have found, like us, that all fish smokers are women. Respondents gave several reasons to explain their choices concerning firewood. describe the socioeconomic lives of those involved in fish smoking; identify the sources of energy, wood species, wood cost, and alternative fuels used; determine the yields of different oven types and the amount of fuel they require. In Cameroon, mangrove forests cover approximately 250,000 hectares and are among the most extensive stands in Africa (Angoni et al., 2015). Fish smokers were asked how far they had to travel for their wood supply and the impact that distance had on their lives. The questionnaire elicited detailed data about the wood fuel used, such as how, where, and how often wood is collected or purchased, and at what cost. NB: Because the observation numbers of each variable were not equal, we used the harmonic mean of the group sizes. I would like to thank the Ministry of Forests and Wildlife and the Ministry of Fisheries and Animal Industry, through their departmental delegation of Fako, for facilitating field trips in the study areas. The climate is characterized by a brief dry season and a rainy season that last over nine months. They were also asked to quantify their oven capacity (the maximum number of kilograms of fish it could hold at one go) and the amount of wood needed to smoke this quantity. (, Polidoro, B. In their study on fish smoking in the same region as ours, N. Z. Feka and Manzano (2008) found that 62% of wood used for fish smoking is mangrove wood. During the peak smoking period, large-scale fish smokers spend an average of 200€ per month on purchasing wood. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. uuid:f2839f3c-b169-4c67-9999-8eb88f192f10 You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. More specifically, we. A project aimed at introducing one type of cinderblock ovens (chokor ovens) in the region failed mainly because of insufficient training and monitoring by project managers. During this first trip, nine fishing communities were identified (Figure 1) and invited to take part in the study. A study by Cameroon Ecology shows that 750 m 3 of mangrove wood is used every year for smoking fish at the local level. The Pearson Correlation Test (r = .952) showed a strong correlation between the amount of wood consumed and the number of fish smoked. Rhizophora is especially popular because its wood is heavy, burns with even heat and gives off little smoke. (d) Palm nuts waste. How to reduce wood consumption is now a central challenge for many governments, and one solution could be the use of more economical ovens. However, fish smokers are not always able to use the oven of their preference. The flora consists essentially of tree species with a dominance of Rhizophora racemosa. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (. The wood is considered very eco-friendly, as some Mango plantations harvest the trees for lumber after they have completed their useful fruit-bearing lifespan. Our first field trip was conducted with personnel from the IRAD and the Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries’ (MINEPIA) team, who introduced us to the fishing communities and explained the purpose and importance of our work. Size matters. This difference is likely due to different wood species being used, as well as to varying costs. Figure 10 shows oven preferences. Indeed, there was a significant difference (t = 11.559, df = 242, p = .00035) between wood quantities and fish quantities. To introduce regulations, it is first necessary for legislation to be passed to protect mangrove forests. Mulo and Ngueguim (2014), who worked on an assessment of the utilization of modern fish smoking ovens and their impact on forest conservation in the coastal communities of the south west region Cameroon, also found that over 40% of the firewood used for smoking was mangrove species. In Down Beach, red mangrove wood was sold by line (15 pieces of wood—see Figure 6) at a cost of 16€, or by car load (a Dyna truck), which comprises 12 lines and a costs 192€. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. Finally, my biggest thanks go to the fish smokers for their collaboration in this study. The overexploitation of mangroves also threatens the sustainability of fish smoking activities. As the population increases, coastal resources will continue to come under more and more pressure (Angoni et al., 2015). This is more than 11,000 hectares lost per year, which equals 4.4% of the total area of mangrove forests every year. For the same smoking time, the cinderblock oven which has a capacity of 160 kg of fish per smoking session can smoke approximately 2,750 kg of fish with 780 kg of wood. The least used alternative energy source were coconut shells (Figure 5(c)) and palm kernel waste (Figure 5(d)). Despite the better performance of cinderblock ovens, they are not widely used, either because smokers are unwilling to try to the new ovens or because they do not know about them. Alejandro Estrada Mangrove wood is harvested by local communities for many purposes, but most notably as fuel for fish smoking. This has put severe pressure on mangrove forests, leading to steady deforestation. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. In addition to the sale of smoked fish, 8.6% of fish smokers also sell fresh fish. The increasing demand for mangrove wood and the steady encroachment and spread of the nypa palm, an invasive mangrove plant… This questionnaire had several components. <>stream Mangrove wood consumption for cooking and fish smoking from the Efasou community is estimated at 16 and 97m. It is now widely recognized, however, that conservation legislation is of fundamental importance to successful mangrove management systems (Van Lavieren et al., 2012 cited in Z. N. Feka, 2015). For the same amount (160 kg) and species of fish, a cinderblock oven consumes 122 kg of wood at a cost of 4€, with a smoking time of 5 and a traditional oven consumes 365 kg of wood costing 9€ with a smoking time of around 21 hr. This discrepancy with our study may be due to the fact that our sample was governed by the relationship between government (IRAD, MINEPIA) and the fish smokers who participated in our study. Several wood species are cut for activities such as cooking food, baking bread, house construction, or building canoes, but fish smoking remains the main drive behind tree felling. Small-scale fish smokers (47.7%), who we classify as having wood expenses less than or equal to 70€, were mostly located in Batoke, Esobe, Njonji, and Bakingili. Figure 3. Fish smoking is a very important activity in the south west region of Cameroon and the demand for smoked fish continues to grow. Mangrove Charcoal is very hard and dense; it burns hotter and longer if compared to any other natural charcoal. It is impossible to determine what kind of wood it is, where it was stored, or what it was used for; this makes it unsafe to use for cooking. Indeed, Pouokam (2011) reports that according to the fish smokers at his study site “the red mangroves are finished and all gone.” Njifonjou (2009) cited in Pouokam (2011) argues that no more than half of mangrove wood consumption is related to fish smoking activities. Oven preference by zone according to respondents. At present, the implementation of law is an issue in Cameroon, and people are able to freely harvest as much wood as they want. As it cannot be prohibited, strategies need urgently to be introduced to regulate mangrove wood consumption. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. Aluminum foil. Thus, some fish smokers used alternative energy sources (Figure 5), as well as firewood, in order to improve physical aspects of the fish, most usually the color. This study found that 99.59% of respondents use traditional ovens. Fishing and fish smoking allows entire families to subsist; nearly 1,018 people were supported by the 243 fish smokers studied. Wood is transported either by tricycle motorcycles, or by rickshaw or, mainly in the case of fruit tree species, by a person carrying it balanced on their head. Qualitative data from the interviewers and questionnaires, and quantitative data from respondents’ consumption monitoring sheets, were analyzed for each site with Excel 2010 software. However, indigenous fishing communities on the coast harvest mangrove wood for household domestic use, in particular for cooking and smoking fish. This is not the case in all countries. Nevertheless, the study shows that cinderblock ovens are categorically more economical than traditional ovens. Our study also found that 52.7% of fish smokers were foreigners, which is contrary to the finding of Fall, Tounkara, Diop, Thiaw, and Thonart (2014), who worked on a socioeconomic and technological study of the production of fermented and dried fish (Guedj) in Senegal, and who found that only 10% of fish smokers were foreigners. Although wood smoking contributes to the physicochemical properties of fish, it does not always achieve fish smokers’ goals. According to Degnon et al. Effective mangrove conservation measures thus need urgently to be employed to avoid both socioeconomic and ecological disasters. 4 0 obj Your trusted wood smoking friend Gerry is here to help you out with finding the right wood for the job! What factors impact on the amount of wood used for fish smoking? For my mangrove … However, indigenous fishing communities on the coast harvest mangrove wood for household domestic use, in particular for cooking and smoking fish. US $580.00-$620 .00 / Metric Ton ... on Alibaba.com, of which charcoal accounts for 76%, decorations & ornaments accounts for 5%. Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. Introducing cinderblock ovens could be key to reducing the consumption of wood; they require half the amount of wood used by a traditional oven. Wood purchases occurred weekly, monthly, and sometimes even annually, as sometimes the peak smoking period is only 1 or 2 months. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. It was usually cut by chainsaws (99.17%) and then transported mainly by canoes (97%). Per fish smoking session, a traditional oven takes 53 hr to smoke 528 kg of fish and consume 1,205 kg of wood at a cost of 50€. Wood chips. Indeed, there was no significant difference (F = 1.761, df = 242, p = .138) between wood quantities used and respondents’ age groups. Fuel wood for fish smoking is the main driver behind the loss of Cameroon's mangrove, with deforestation rates of 8.28% per year (Feka, 2005, Ajonina et al., 2008, Alongi, 2008, Feka and Manzano, 2008, Feka et al., 2009, Feka and Ajonina, 2011). Mangrove charcoal. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. I am also grateful to Pr. Our mangrove wood is 100% legally harvested, processed and exported under the most strict international exports standards and we are shipping the best mangrove charcoal for BBQ all over the world. In this Florida Keys fishing video, join us for a day of flats fishing in the lower keys on our flats boat. A wide variety of mangrove wood options are available to you, There are 524 suppliers who sells mangrove wood on Alibaba.com, mainly located in Asia. In their study of five communities in the same area, Mulo and Ngueguim (2014), found that 83% of fish smokers used traditional ovens and 11% used metal ovens. Our overarching aim is to contribute to the sustainable management of mangroves through an assessment of the impact of fish smoking activities on them. Thus, smoking is highly dependent on mangrove forests (Ajonina, 2008; Ajonina, 2001). Wanda_Ra . Figure 5. Quote Wanda_Ra. endobj If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. A., Carpenter, K. E., Collins, L., Duke, N. C., Ellison, A. M., Ellison, J. C., Livingstone, S. R. (. Creation of a high spatio‐temporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st century (CGMFC‐21), Biology and distribution of mangrove crabs in the Wouri River Estuary, Douala, Cameroon, Evaluation de la qualité microbiologique des poissons Etmalosz fimbriata et Sardinella aurita fumés traditionnellement [Assessment of the microbiological quality of Etmalosz fimbriata and Sardinella aurita fish traditionally smoked], The loss of species: Mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern. The quantity of wood consumed is governed not only by the amount of fish requiring smoking but also by the type of oven used. Table 2. In fact, many local ordinances forbid harvesting it. It has shown that wood plays a major role in the energy supply of the rural population. NB: Other refers to wood species very rarely used (species that have been cited less than 5 times in total). This difference is due to the scarcity of Kribi mangroves relative to other species (Angoni et al., 2015). Fish smokers acquired firewood in several ways. Besides mangrove forests, this study revealed that 35% of wood comes from continental forests and 3% from home gardens. Mangrove wood is harvested by local communities for many purposes, but most notably as fuel for fish smoking. They are formed of river alluvium which is relatively rich in organic matter (Tadjoung & Effala, 2008). The Best Charcoal for Barbecue and Grilling. treat fish like fish Post Options . Suspended ovens have a large capacity (can take 1,500 kg) for fish and consume 500 kg to 3,360 kg of wood with a smoking time ranging from 48 to 96 hr (2–4 days). The surveys comprised semistructured interviews based on a questionnaire which were designed with help of the IRAD team. Pouokam (2011) found that only 75% of fish smokers have preference for wood. Figure 10. Wet wood makes bad smoke. This result is also supported by Ndiaye and Diei-Ouadi (2009) who report a result of 2€ of fuel per 100 kg of fish for a cinderblock oven compared to 5€ for a traditional oven. Only one respondent used a modern cinderblock oven (Figure 9(d)). On the other hand, a traditional oven has a shorter life span. Some could even be classified as industries since they consumed 400€ to 420€ in wood per month (this is during the peak smoking period of 1 or 2 months). In the south-west region of the country, pressure on woody resources such as mangrove is particularly extreme. Can't comment on the bottlebrush but I've got a US book here that says the best 2 woods to use when smoking are hickory and mangrove (!) We also found that fish smoking processes are not random. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. Fish smokers have well-defined requirements for their activities. They are also safer to use, in that they do not generate as much heat and smoke as traditional ovens, and they smoke fish more cleanly (so that the fish are less carcinogenic). T tests were used in order to compare ovens yields and to compare the amount of wood consumed and the quantity of fish smoked. This study also showed that 47% of wood used by fish smokers comes from mangrove forests. This large gap could be explained by the fact that there were not many cinderblock ovens in our study site which prevented us being able to make a thorough estimate of cinderblock oven performance. The study was conducted in Ndian and Fako department, in the south-west region of Cameroon. It seemed that local people were unaware of the need to maintain ecosystem (a) Suspended iron banda. endstream This is supported by Ngoma (2005) who found that the smoking time of a cinderblock oven is 5 to 12 hr. Population pressure also causes mangrove destruction in unprotected areas, especially around settlements, villages, and towns where poverty and land issues force people to move onto any open land they can (ENVI-REP Cameroun, 2010). Related Articles: Fluorescence: A Secret Weapon in Wood Identification; Scans/Pictures: As you can see below, Mango gets considerably darker when a finish has been applied. Furthermore, the resulting product is better and less carcinogenic, and therefore could be more valuable. We found that cinderblock ovens have a smoking time of 5 hr. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Despite their evident ecological value, and the fact that they constitute an important source of income for surrounding coastal communities, there is a lack of mangrove protection measures in many tropical regions (Spaninks & Beukering, 1997). Fishing and hunting are the main human activities. View or download all the content the society has access to. Rubber tree wood was the most used second choice species. N. Z. Feka, Chuyong, and Ajonina (2009) found that the smoking time of a cinderblock oven is 30% less than a traditional oven. TSI Evaristus, senior lecturer at the Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences and Dr. NGUEGUIM Jules, Head of station IRAD Limbe-Batoke, for their supervision of this work and their creative thinking and hard work during the establishment phase of the project. Mangrove wood consumption and impacts on mangrove forests . Fifty-two percent of respondents are large-scale smokers and are mainly located in Eyengue, Idenau, and Down Beach. Thus, although the traditional ovens have a larger capacity per smoking session, the amount smoked per kg of wood is far less compared to the cinderblock oven, the smoking time is longer and the cost of wood is far higher. Smoker or charcoal grill. Thus, smoking is highly dependent on mangrove forests (Ajonina, 2008; Ajonina, 2001). A large percentage (76%) of wood used by fish smokers is red mangrove wood. If nothing is done to conserve or sustainably manage the remaining stands, then the Rhizophora species will disappear, as is already the case in Kribi and in many other regions (Ngo-Massou et al., 2014; Pouokam, 2011). We also found that the smoking time is almost 90% less than that of a traditional oven. Mangrove branches wood charcoal is called as Kachi charcoal. (2015) also found that second wood choice by fish smoker was Azobe (25%), which is also the second choice found in our study (although at just 13%). In Cameroon, mangrove forests — made up of salt-tolerant trees and shrubs found between small streams and the sea — are in danger of becoming extinct because of the tendency of women to harvest them for smoking fish. A total of 243 fish smokers were surveyed. Questions were designed to elicit gender, marital status, age, study level, number of family members, nationality, and main professional activity (fishing, fish smoker, or fish seller). Mangrove Charcoal is a great source for BBQ or grilling. For this reason, it … Indeed, this study found that red mangrove is the favored wood for fish smokers. Can be crafted into birch planks or burned for charcoal. Photo by Helen Scales. Image Credit: DarylGlass/iStock/Getty Images The oily texture and strong flavor of mullet make it a good choice for smoking. A balance needs to be found between consumption and preservation: This is the challenge for all parties involved in the fight for sustainable mangrove management in Cameroon. This may be due to the Muslim culture in these countries, which may prevent women from going to school. Several wood species were used as firewood. Our study found that all the fish smokers were women from Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, and Benin. Alternative fuels that could reduce wood consumption are rarely used as fuel; they are used to improve the physicochemical properties of fish for better sales. Rhizophora mangle and Rhizophora harrisonii are also present. This ratio is more than twice what we found in our study, which is probably due to differences in size and species of the fish (Ngoma, 2005). Some respondents had not come across cinderblock ovens. 1,315 mangrove wood products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba.com, of which charcoal accounts for 29%, decorations & ornaments accounts for 1%. Some only purchased it, and others, in addition to purchasing it, also collected their own wood. SAGE Publications Inc, unless otherwise noted. Table 1 gives a summary of data obtained from each site. These figures show that we must act quickly to avoid the irreversible degradation of this fragile ecosystem that plays such an important role in …
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